In this post, I’ll describe how one can migrate his/her system from whatever partitioning scheme there already is to the following one:
/dev/sda2as encrypted LUKS device containing LVM with
As a result, one would be prompted for a password each time Debian boots (that is, after choosing some entry in GRUB, but before any services are being started). LUKS also has other authenticating schemes, like a key file on separate device, but we won’t get into that.
LUKS: it enables one to encrypt disks, so if computer is stolen or something, one can be pretty sure of confidential information not being accessed. I don’t have any strong argument for LUKS in particular (that is, except the fact that it works for me), so you can go with whatever you like. Note, though, that this post was written with LUKS in mind, exclusively, so your mileage with other tools may wary.
LVM: it enables one to resize volumes on the fly (that is, without rebooting machine and using live CD to tweak partition table). Now this is not something one would do often, if ever, but it was two times already that I wished for LVM to be there. Better have it but not need it than the other way round.
Warnings and notes
This post is not for newbies. Not because this stuff is really advanced or something, but because you might run into troubles that you won’t be able to fix yourself. Having another Internet-enabled machine to ask questions on the forums would definitely help here.
Backing up your data is one of the mandatory steps of the guide, so don’t worry if you somehow screw up — you can always go back to square one and start afresh.
I’ve written this instructions after migrating two machines, one with i686 system and another with amd64. Both are running Debian Wheezy (at the moment of writing it was frozen for a month already, so this instructions would remain true for the Wheezy release). All the troubles I run into are documented in the respecting section of that post. In no way it means that I covered all corner cases, so be prepared!
Last but not least, beware of typos! I re-read that post a few times, but it’s inherent for humans to make errors. I would very much appreciate it if you drop me a line upon spotting any error in this post (or any other, to that matter). Be it a typo, clumsy sentence or total incompetence on my part — check About section of this blog and write me an email.
What we need
- Place to store backups.
- Live CD with
cfdisk(or any other disk partitioning software you’re familiar with),
mkfs(some filesystems need different tools to create them, be sure to have everything you need),
lvm. RIP Linux is my choice here.
- Half an hour at least (not counting time to create and then unroll backups), might be up to hundred times more if you run into troubles. Definitely not an endeavour to start before going to sleep!
- A day or more if you choose to wipe your disk before re-partitioning it (more on that later).
While we still have working system, let’s install a few packages:
$ sudo aptitude install lvm2 cryptsetup
Make sure they really install without any errors (look out for initramfs updates and Grub errors). If there are any, better fix them before continuing, or you would need to face them again when your system won’t boot.
Then backup your data. If you have something large stored in your home directory, move it elsewhere (I used
rsync and another machine connected by the network cable). Don’t mind dotfiles yet, we’ll back them up later. Ideally,
ls ~ should list nothing before we start.
Now really fun stuff begins. Reboot your machine to live CD. Mount all your partitions, then
cd into each mountpoint and backup files with that command:
# tar cvpf /backups/BACKUPNAME.tar .
(assuming you have your backup device mounted into
/backups). That would
file with a given name, packing everything that you have in the current directory,
preserving permissions and being
verbose about what’s going on.
You might also add
j for bzip2,
J for xz,
z for gzip, or
a to auto-detect compression program from the filename. Useful if you got slow device for backups (e.g., USB2.0 stick) but fast HDD and some CPU time to spare.
Now that backups are ready, we can really start breaking things. It’s recommended to populate your whole disk with some random data. That way, if someone gains physical access to disk (by stealing your machine, for example), they won’t be able to say where separate files or even LVM volumes are — it all will look like one huge randomized mess. If you don’t worry about that much, or you’re sure that you willfill whole disk up at least once before your machine would be stolen (I really hope it will never happen!), just skip that step and save yourself a day or so.
For those who want to perform wiping, there are a lot of ways to populate disk with random bits. The most secure, of course, is using some real good random generator, say,
/dev/random. That particular solution is not very practical, though, because it’s painfully slow. So in practice, you better write zeroes onto encrypted volume — my laptop with Intel Core i3, for example, can generate 4 gigabytes of zeroes per second, which is way more faster than
/dev/random (and even
/dev/urandom) and is just as secure (thanks to Łukasz Stelmach for pointing this out; I used to suggest filling the disk with
/dev/urandom’s output, optionally encrypted).
Okay, so to wipe your disk, you should run the following:
# cryptsetup -d /dev/random -c aes-xts-plain -s 512 \ create crypt /dev/sda # dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mapper/crypt bs=1M # cryptsetup remove crypt
Now on to the re-partitioning of your disk. Here I’ll describe how to do that using
cfdisk, but you may use whatever you’re comfortable with. Type the following command:
# cfdisk -z /dev/sda
(Note that I assume you have your primary, and only, disk as
/dev/sda. If that’s not the case, change — and possibly re-run — commands accordingly.) Something like that would show up:
cfdisk (util-linux 2.20.1) Disk Drive: /dev/sda Size: 500107862016 bytes, 500.1 GB Heads: 255 Sectors per Track: 63 Cylinders: 60801 Name Flags Part Type FS Type [Label] Size (MB) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Pri/Log Free Space 500107.87* [ Help ] [ New ] [ Print ] [ Quit ] [ Units ] [ Write ] Create new partition from free space
Don’t panic yet — your partitions are still intact, it’s just
-z flag that makes
cfdisk pretend there’s none. You could omit it, but then you would need to remove all your partitions by hand.
So what we do now is create two partitions, one occupying about 100M and another taking everything else. The first partition, which is a future
/boot, doesn’t really need that much space; on my machines, it never occupies more than 40M, and I have a few kernels and memtest86+ installed.
When you’re done creating new partitions, write new table to disk and quit the tool. Now, let’s create file system on first partition and mount it somewhere:
# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1 # mkdir /mnt/sda1 # mount -t ext2 /dev/sda1 /mnt/sda1
If you had separate
/boot partition before, you should have separate backup for it. To unroll it, do the following:
# cd /mnt/sda1 && tar xvf /backups/boot.tar
If you didn’t have separate partition for
/boot, things are just a tiny bit more complicated — you have to take
/boot out of your backup of root partition:
# cd /mnt/sda1 && tar xvf /backup/root.tar './boot' # mv boot/* . && rmdir boot
Now it’s time to deal with other partitions. First of all, let’s create LUKS device on
# cryptsetup luksFormat -c aes-xts-plain -s 512 /dev/sda2
That’s when you would be prompted for a password. Don’t worry too much, you can change it later. Now we need to open encrypted device, i.e. create something that would point inside it:
# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda2 sda2_luks
/dev/mapper - you now have
sha2_luks in there! Ain’t that great? We’re halfway through now, so go have some tea, I’ll wait.
Okay, we’ve got LUKS device open. What we do now is creating LVM inside it. To do that, run the following commands:
# lvm pvcreate /dev/mapper/sda2_luks # lvm vgcreate lvm /dev/mapper/sda2_luks # lvm lvcreate -L15G -n root lvm # lvm lvcreate -L8G -n swap lvm # lvm lvcreate -l100%FREE -n home lvm
All new devices would be available under
/dev/mapper and have names like
lvm-root. There’s a few notes on that commands, though.
First of all,
lvm at the beginning can be omitted — all of
lvm’s subcommands are available as separate ones. Next, sizes of volumes might be different for you. I found that 10G is enough for root on my i686 netbook, but not for amd64 notebook. Third, it is generally suggested to have twice as much swap as RAM in the machine, so adjust accordingly. As for home, note that there’s lowercase L there, not an uppercase one — that’s what enables us to use percentage instead of absolute value. Last, you could have created smaller volumes and then grow them as you need — it’s perfectly valid scheme, and you might like it if you don’t know how much space you would need.
Now that we have volumes, let’s create filesystems and unroll backups:
# for vol in root home ; do \ mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/lvm-$vol \ done # mkswap /dev/mapper/lvm-swap # mkdir /mnt/lvm-root /mnt/lvm-home # mount -t ext4 /dev/mapper/lvm-root /mnt/lvm-root # mount -t ext4 /dev/mapper/lvm-home /mnt/lvm-home # cd /mnt/lvm-root && tar xvf /backups/root.tar && \ rm -rf boot/* # cd /mnt/lvm-home && tar xvf /backups/home.tar # umount /mnt/lvm-home
Note that we purged
/boot’s contents — directory would be used as a mount point now.
Our next step is
chrooting into the system and tweaking it so it would boot from encrypted device:
# mount -o bind /dev /mnt/lvm-root/dev # LANG=C chroot /mnt/lvm-root # mount -t proc proc /proc # mount -t sysfs sys /sys # mount -t devpts devpts /dev/pts # mount /dev/sda1 /boot # editor /etc/initramfs-tools/modules
The file we just opened contains list of modules that should be present in initramfs for it to be able to boot Linux from encrypted partition. Put the following lines at the end of the file:
aes-i586 dm-crypt dm-mod
If you’re running 64-bit system, first line is not needed — it would only produce “module not found” errors each time you boot. (I’m not really sure about the last one — some guides I’ve read omitted them, and I didn’t experiment myself.)
Now let’s edit
/etc/fstab so system knows where to find root and other partitions:
# editor /etc/fstab
It should look like that:
proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 /dev/sda1 /boot ext2 defaults 0 0 /dev/mapper/lvm-root / ext4 defaults 0 0 /dev/mapper/lvm-home /home ext4 defaults 0 0 /dev/mapper/lvm-swap none swap sw 0 0 /dev/sr0 /media/cdrom0 udf,iso9660 user,noauto 0 0
“But how would machine know where to find LVM?”, I hear you asking. Good question! For that, we have another file,
/etc/crypttab. You should edit it to look like that:
sda2_luks /dev/sda2 none luks,tries=3
Last step is to tell your Debian system to actually read that file and prepare to boot from encrypted device. We should also update GRUB to let it know of separate boot partition:
# update-initramfs -k all -u -v # update-grub
I think plenty of you are already curious of what initramfs is. To save you some googling, here’s the simplest explanation possible: it’s a little executable that is being read by GRUB from the
/boot partition when you want to boot with particular kernel (there’s separate initramfs for each). We update them all to include modules that would ask you for password, open LUKS device, map LVM volumes into
/dev/mapper, and proceed with booting your system.
So that’s all. Let’s exit chroot and reboot to our migrated system:
# umount /boot # exit # umount /mnt/lvm-root/dev # umount /mnt/lvm-root # shutdown -r now
If everything went well, you would be asked for a passphrase and then boot into your Debian just as usual. If not, don’t give up — and read on.
Mounting LUKS and LVM by hand
When you ran
lvm lvcreate, volumes were mapped automatically. But if you reboot into live CD,
/dev/mapper would be empty. So here’s a quick note on how to get it all going again.
First, we open LUKS:
# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda2 sda2_luks
…and then we instruct lvm to look for a “lvm” volume group (read LVM HOWTO for details on LVM inner structure):
# lvm lvchange -ay lvm
He’s dead, Jim! (troubleshooting section)
I can’t boot, after GRUB menu there’s an error message and nothing happens
If you’re sure you did install
cryptsetup packages, google the error you get and figure things out yourself — I don’t know anything about your problem and can’t help.
If you did forget to install the packages, just chroot into the system and do it now. If you can’t get network up, use another machine to get packages from packages.debian.org or directly from your favourite mirror, and install them using
sudo dpkg -i FILENAME.deb. There might be troubles with dependencies, those you would need to solve yourself. Just download more packages and then re-install those that didn’t configure properly due to dependency problems (
sudo apt-get -f install might be useful here). It’s tiresome, but manageable (unless you had your system in terribly desynchronised state — then you might end up upgrading it all by hand).
I can’t chroot, it says something about ELF being wrong
You’re trying to chroot into 32-bit system from the 64-bit one, or vice versa. That won’t work (not without a lot of trouble). Just boot with appropriate kernel and try again.
update-initramfs complains that it “can’t find canonical device for X”
That means you have X specified as a resume device (or something), but since we re-partitioned the disk, X doesn’t exist anymore. Use the following command to find out which file you need to change:
$ sudo grep X -R /etc
I can’t resume from hibernate (suspend to disk) anymore
If you use
pm-utils package), add resume parameter to
/etc/default/grub, like this:
If you use
uswsusp package, just update its config,
resume device = /dev/mapper/lvm-swap
I recommend you reading LVM HOWTO. It’s a little bit outdated, but still useful to newbies.
You would probably find Debian wiki entry on LVM on AES-XTS encrypted volume useful. It’s mostly commands right now, though — someone willing to add more explanations?
Gentoo wiki has a good entry on disk encryption as well.
That’s all, guys and gals. Stay safe!
Update 21.01.2015: suggest writing zeroes onto encrypted volume as a way to securely wipe the disk (thanks to Łukasz Stelmach for pointing this out).
Drop me a line! (wonder where’s the comments form?)