I never bragged about it here, but for the last three years or so, I have been maintaining an RSS reader called Newsboat. It’s written in C++, and as you might’ve already guessed, we’re porting it to Rust now. Kind folks on Reddit encouraged me to blog about it, so here goes.
In this post, I’ll be using “we” quite a bit, since a lion’s share of the work is done not by me, but by a number of awesome contributors. Thank you for all the help, people!
Using existing code as a library
Newsboat isn’t small enough to rewrite in a few evenings, so the first order of business was to hook Cargo into our existing Makefile. To check if it links all right, we had to rewrite some small function. A “genius” idea came to my mind: I’ll rewrite
main(), and use existing C++ code as a library!
There was a method to my madness. I thought that by putting Rust at the very bottom of the call stack—making it the very first thing that’s called when the program starts—I’ll ensure that Rust owns all the long-lived objects. That way, I could start reaping the benefits of borrow checking right away.
This worked fine—but only on my machine. Since we were now using
rustc to link the final executable, we ran into problems with debug builds:
rustc couldn’t find gcov symbols (or its Clang counterparts). On OS X, it was failing even harder, because it couldn’t find C++ standard library even if we passed
-lc++. I managed to fix GCC builds by linking with
gcov library, but Clang and OS X remained.
All this trouble made me re-evaluate my approach, and finally realize that it didn’t really matter who calls whom. We could just as easily keep
main() in C++, and have it immediately call into Rust to get all the same benefits. A prod from @upsuper definitely helped here.
I implemented that, and the only problem we’ve found since then is that we have to manually link dynamic libraries required by Rust. Since final linking is done by the C++ compiler,
rustc simply doesn’t get a chance to do the required linking itself. So now, we always link with
dl. On OS X, we also pass
-framework Security flag, to get the
_SecRandomCopyBytes symbol required by
Diving head-first into FFI
With the build shenanigans out of the way, we could finally start porting some code. I thought the main challenge with that would be converting functions’ arguments from one representation to another. To prepare, I even wrote a toy thing that called a C function from Rust (unwittingly re-creating Alex Crichton’s “Rust FFI examples”). Easy as pie!
Turns out I prepared for the wrong thing. Thanks to The Rust FFI Omnibus, all the FFI stuff we needed so far could be simply copy-pasted from the Web. However, since I put all our Rust code into a single crate that compiled to a static library, we couldn’t write integration tests. Rust simply does not link with static libraries produced from crates, so it doesn’t even create executables for the integration tests!
Luckily, the StackOverflow question about this very problem provided a solution: split the code into “pure-Rust” and “FFI” crates. The former can then be tested via Rust, and the latter can be tested e.g. by writing a C++ application. We already had a test executable running our C++ tests, so implementing this was as simple as moving some Rust code around.
Of course, all of this happened a few days prior to me learning about Cargo workspaces, so I had to re-organize our crates again to deduplicate dependencies and cut down on build times. Consider finishing The Book before you start putting code into production, folks!
That was the first of the series on rewriting Newsboat in Rust. In the next installment, I’ll tell you how I ported a global mutable singleton, and rant about Rust’s unit testing framework. If you don’t want to miss it, subscribe—via RSS, of course :) Happy coding!
Drop me a line! (wonder where’s the comments form?)